Introduction to City:
Hyderābād City headquarters of the district of Sindh province of Pakistan traces its early history to Neroon a Sindhi ruler of the area from whom the city derived its previous name, Neroon Kot. Its history dates back to medieval times, when Ganjo Takker (Barren Hill), a nearby hilly tract, was used as a place of worship. Lying on the most northern hill of the Ganjo Takker ridge, just east of the river Indus, it is the third largest city in the province and the eighth largest in the country with an expanse over three hillocks part of the most northerly hills of the Ganjo Takker range, 32 miles east of the Indus with which it is connected by various routes leading to Gidu Bandar.
Hyderabad, as the historic capital of Sindh, is the centre of all the provincial communications: road, rail, waterways and air. From the date of its foundation (1768), its manufactures-ornamented silks, silver- and gold-work, and lacquered ware-have been the chief in the province, and during its heyday had gained prizes at the industrial exhibitions of Europe. Some noteworthy antiquities are the tombs’ of the Kalhora jagirani and Talpur rulers.
The Early Settlement:
The area around Hyderabad was an agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley civilization.
Under the rule of a local ruler Neroon, this small fishing village thrived upon the banks of the mighty Indus river. A nearby hill tract called the Ganjo Takker or the bald (barren) hill, later attributed to as the Ganjo Range by British occupants, protected the town raising it above the level of the water and safe from flood calamities that were regular in neighbouring regions. Of popular tradition, the place came to be known as Neroon Kot Neroon Kot literally means the place where Neroon came from.
The Ganjo Takker ridge lay on a low limestone range and was used as a place of worship by the most adherent religious priests that blessed the city believing their meditation may result in excellent trade networks the city was developing at the time. But these very particular popularity traits in the areas of trade led the city vulnerable to outside sieges. Equipped mostly with farming equipment, the locals were attacked by the conquest of Islamic armies circa AD 711 and surrendered. Neroon was dethroned.
In the 7th Century
In the Chachnama we find frequent mention of a chief Agham Lohana who was ruler of Brahmanabad with their two territories, Lakha to the west of Lohana and Sama to the south of Lohana (Nerron) Narayankot, Hyderabad, Sindh in the time of Chach AD 636.
The Islamic Conquest:
In 711, Muhammad bin Qasim al-Sakafi (pictured right) conquered the town. By the mid-712, Muslims armies had conquered much of the Sindh. However, later in an agreement with local authorities of the Sindh the Arab forces halted their advances and ceased military activities in Sindh in return of peaceful conduct affairs. After a brief rule of Arabs and local leaders Sindh came under the rule of local Soomros, who were local Sindhis converted to Islam. Soomro rule was followed by the great Samma dynasty rule. By the end of Samma dynasty rule Sindh was occupied by invading Afghan warlords who lost the empire to Mughal Empire after a brief period of rule.
The Mughal empire thrived in the majority of the central parts of India and yet however never seated a ruler on the land of Neroon. The new Muslim invaders that had settled in the town mingled with the locals and wed local girls and were pulled into the mysticism of the land. For decades Hyderabad did not seat a throne but things were to change when Nadir Shah Durrani or Iran invaded the Mughal capital in 1739.
All throughout the late 17th century, the Mughal dynasty had grown weary and weak in the regions of the Sindhu territory or Sindh and the governor Yar Muhammad Khan Kalhora became the de facto, virtual ruler of Sindh around 1701. Muhammad Khan Kalhora belonged to the most affluent tribe in the region namely the Kalhora.
In 997, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Sinds. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Sindh region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Sindh.
Old City of Hyderabad
The Old City is the name given to parts in the east of the city of Hyderabad in Sindh, Pakistan that were part of the city before the creation of Latifabad and Qasimabad. These areas include Paratabad, Islamabad, Noorani Basti, Tando Yousaf and Kalimori. The old name of Hyerabad was Narayan kot in Arabic tone is Nerun Kot. It was also known as the City Of wind Catchers and Orials.
The Kalhora dynasty
The River Indus was changing course around 1757 due to Monsoons resulting in periodic floods and devastating the banks of the river. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhora was admired as the saintly ruler of Sindh at the time his capital Khudabad near Dadu was repeatedly flooded. Being fed up, he decided to move his capital to a better place.
The present day city of Hyderabad was founded in 1768 on the site of the ancient town of Neroon Kot by Ghulam Shah Kalhora of the Kalhora Dynasty it remained the chief town of Sindh until 1843, when, after the battle of Miani, it surrendered to the British, and the capital was transferred to Karachi.It was named after the prophet Mohammed’s son-in-law, Ali, also known as Haidar.
Surviving as a small fishing village on the banks of River Indus, the city was suddenly called the heart of the Mehran. Thriving upon the fresh river water’s banks, Hyderabad was much loved by Ghulam Shah. He admired the city so much that in 1766, he ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills of Hyderabad to house and defend his people. The massive half-a-square kilometer (about 36 acres) garrison was completed by 1768. Since then, it stands in place and is called the Pacco Qillo or the strong fort. The Kalhora rule lasted for two more decades until the demise of the great Ghulam Shah.
The Talpur Kingdom
After the death of the great Kalhora, started Talpur Rule. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro’s period is considered to be the Golden period in the history of Sindh. Later the Kalhora behaved as incompetent rulers and Sindh was ruined under Mian Abdun-Nabi Kalhoro.Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur left his capital Khudabad, the land of God and made Hyderabad his capital in 1789. Great celebrations were held in 1792 to mark his formal entry in the Hyderabad fort. He made the Pacco Qillo his residence and also held his courts there. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur along with his three other brothers was responsible for the affairs that persisted in the city of Hyderabad in the years of their kingdom. The four were called Chār Yār, Sindhi for four friends. The rulers of Sindh were named Ameers, Arabic for leaders. A portion of the population of Khudabad migrated to the new capital, including Sonaras, Amils and Bhaibands. Those groups retained the term Khudabadi in the names of their communities as an identifier of origin.
It remained the capital of Sindh under the Talpur rulers who succeeded the Kalhoras till 1843, a rule lasting almost half-a-century when Talpurs faced a greater threat – the British. The last remaining rule of the Talpur kingdom was Mir Muhammad Naseer Khan Talpur (pictured right) was among the Talpur leaders to surrender to the British and was ported to Calcutta in what is now India. Many Talpur Mirs died there during many years of confinement in a small area near Calcutta. The bodies of the Talpur Mirs who died there were brought back to Hyderabad when all Mirs were allowed to return to Sindh. These Mirs were buried in the tombs located at the northern edge of the Ganjo Hill.
For these Mirs, they embraced the local culture and tried to proceed it with building literary institutions to restore the integrity of the Sindhi culture. In order to educate their people the mother of Mir Fateh Ali Khan, Bibi Khairunnissa, established Jamia al-Khairi or al-Khairi University.
The Colonial Rule:
The history of the British occupation is taken mostly from the Imperial Gazetteer of India, written over a century ago during British rule.
The British came face-to-face with the Talpurs at the battle of Miani on 17 February 1843. It is said that even in rigor mortis the Ameers (Mirs) held their swords high fighting the British. The battle ended on 24 March where the Mirs lost and the city came into the hands of the British. The battle at Dabo landed an even greater part of Sindh in the laps of the British regime and the city surrendered to the British. Being the last stronghold in the way of the British, the city once conquered, completed the British Conquest of Sindh.
The crown of being a capital of the emirate of Sindh was then transferred to Karachi when the British general Sir Charles Napier conquered Sindh in 1843, mainly because the East India Company had headquarters in Karachi.
The residency, memorable for its defence by Sir James Outram against the Baluchis in 1843, which was situated 3 miles from Hyderabad, no longer exists. The municipality of Hyderabad was established in 1853.
In the Pacco Qillo the British kept the arsenal of the province, transferred from Karachi in 1861, and the palaces of the ex-Amirs of Sind that they had taken over. In 1857, when the Indian mutiny raged across the South Asia, the British held most of their regiments and ammunition in this city. The garrison at the fort composed of British and Native infantry, 2 batteries of artillery, and an ammunition column. The barracks were built in twelve blocks, with hospitals, bazar and various amenities to the north-west of the city.
The British demolished most of the buildings around the time of the mutiny to accommodate their troops and their military stores and fused the arsenal in the Pacco Qillo so that the people wouldn’t use that against them. Evidently the city received the very first blow to its glorious name. No longer were the roads washed with sandalwood perfume and rose-water.
The British however tallied the population statistics of the city in the years to come to keep an accurate record of the growth. Populations statistics dating back to 1872 illustrate the tremendous growth the city achieved within a few decades. From 43,088 (1872), 48,153 (1881), 58,048 (1891) to 69,378 (1901), the city grew in thousands. At this point in time the Hinduism was the most dominant religion with 43,499 followers mostly linked to trade while 24,831 Muslims made up the largest ethnic minority. The 710 Christians were mostly new converts or the British soldiers in regiments around the town. The city ranked seventh in the Bombay Presidency in terms of population.
Also included in the census figures were income and expenditure, the average income during the decade ending 1901 was Rs. 220,000. In 1903-4 the income and expenditure amounted to 270,000 and 280,000 respectively. The chief sources of income were octroi (Rs. 1,30,000) and water rate (Rs. 22,000); and the chief heads of expenditure were general administration and collection of taxes (Rs. 39,000), public safety (Rs. 7,400), water-supply and drainage (RS. 22,000), conservancy (Rs. 37,000), hospitals and dispensaries (Rs. 15,000), public works (Rs. 13,000), and education (Rs. 18,000). The income of the cantonment fund in 1903-4 was Rs. 43,000, and the expenditure Rs. 33,800.
The British devised a rail network throughout the western part of the then South Asia and purchased the private Scinde Railway (Sinds railway) to connect to the Kabul trade routes. The rail network would later be called the North-Western State Railway in 1886. Hyderabad was a major junction on the line linking distant trade locations like Lahore and still is to date.
To facilitate the expansion of the former capital, the British deployed water pumping technologies that would pump water from the river bank at Gidu Bandar whence from the water was deposited into large reservoirs situated about 500 yards from the river bank capable of holding over 1,000,000 gallons of water, surely a first when it comes to state-of-the-art constructions. Using a smart gravitational concept, the water was then supplied to the far most arid regions of the town.
Independence and Exodus of Sindhi Hindus
The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Hyderabad District. Prior to the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Hyderabad had a large population of Hindu Sindhi who were mainly involved in trade and commerce. After independencee of Pakistan, the Hindu Sindhis expected to remain in Sindh, but they were compelled to migrate to India. The waves of Muhajir refugees fleeing from India started to arrive in Hyderabad, violence erupted on the streets. The properties of Sindhi Hindus were given to Muhajir. Although most of the Hindu Sindhis fled to India. Many Hindu Sindhis wanted to return to Sindh, when the violence had settled down, but it was not possible. The Muhajir were given land in lieu of land they lost in India mostly in the town of Hirabad. While the population of Hyderabad grew with the arrival of Muslim refugees from India, the Government of Pakistan proposed the creation of two more suburbs, namely Latifabad (in honour of the famous poet of Sindh Shah Abdul Latif Bhita’i) and Qasimabad (in honour of the famous Muslim general Muhammad bin Qasim), to settle the Muslim refugees.
City Declared Capital Again:
With the influx of Muslim refugees from across the borders, the city saw its numbers increasing in population and was deemed to be the second largest city in Sindh according to population statistics at the time. Owing to the new-found glory, the city regained its title of being a capital of the Sindh province from 1947 to 1955. After formation of Province of the West Pakistan in 1955 under one unit scheme, Hyderabad lost its capital status. Meanwhile, Karachi which being the federal capital of Pakistan, was shifted in 1959 to Rawalpindi by then president Ayub Khan. On dissolution of one unit in 1970, the then President Yahya Khan made Karachi as the capital of Sindh in 1970. During this time, Hyderabad served as a municipality in 1953; while along the oncoming year, it was upgraded to a Municipal Corporation.
Hyderabad, twice the capital of Sindh and now the sixth largest city of Pakistan, is one of the oldest cities of the South Asia. Hyderabad is a communication centre, connected by rail with Peshawar and Karachi. The second largest city of the province of Sindh, it has over 6 million people dwelling in it.
Diverse Ethnic Settlements:
People migrated from across the border into Pakistan were all ethnically diverse. Migrants that settled in the province of Punjab were predominantly Punjabi speaking people and amalgamated well with the natives, whilst the people that came into the territories of the province of Sindh found no bond with the natives of Sindh, neither cultural nor racial, not even religious at times. Most Sindhi natives were Hindus. The new emigrants found difficult to mingle with the native neighbours in their newly allotted homes. And even decades after independence, the tensions seems to rise even steeper limits. The emigrants were given a new identity, a new name – Muhajirs.
Being a Muhajir and Recognition:
Towards the end of the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s, Karachi was a haven for Muslim refugees who fled anti-Muslim violence in India, known merely as Muhajirs, the word having descent from Hijrat, the exodus of early Muslims along with the prophet from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution due to religious beliefs. With Karachi overflowing with migrants, the influx reached the ends of the Hyderabad city at the south, where Latifabad is located.
The refugees that travelled across the border spoke Urdu and had cultural and social traditions different from that of their counterparts the Sindhis adopted. With the adoption of Urdu as a National language, it was apparent that the Muhajirs were in the forefront of the struggle for Pakistani nationalism whilst their Sindhi, Punjabi and Pathan counterparts supported their own regional identities and found nationalism a fad excuse by the Muhajirs to gather more power out of the system.
The federal power, that rested with the Muhajirs, starting to gradually sift into the hands of more Punjabi ‘bureaucratic-military clique’. The Sindhis fought back to resurrect their dying culture and in 1972, according to the Sindh Act, imposed the teaching of Sindhi language compulsory in schools all over the province of Sindh. These actions led to the first violent clashes involving muhajir groups.
The Ethnic Riots:
The 1980s saw a black period in the history of Hyderabad as riots erupted in the city between the two ethnic diversities in majority, the Sindhis and the Muhajir. The city had never been the same again, forever divided by ethnicity, scared by racist hatred.This type of tension was never felt in the town; even when Hindus were part of the community in pre-independence Hyderabad.
On 30 September 1988 after sunset simultaneously at several places in Hyderabad and Latifabad (thickly populated by Mahajirs) gangs of armed people started firing at people in streets causing about more that 300 casualties most of them were mahajirs, surprisingly no law enforcement agency, including police interrupted the assault and all killers escaped, not a single killing vehicle was apprehended next day few sindhis were killed in karachi. , it was reported that the streets of Hyderabad were littered with bodies right from Hirabad to Latifabad. a commission was set up and some people were charged with crime but not a single culprit was taken to task, and one after other all got free from sindh high court. government, then headed by ghulam ishaq khan as president did no serious attempt to find the killers and after 1988 election people party govt made it sure that no evidence or witness should go to court, generally mahajirs think it was job of establishment who used sindhi nationalist organisations as weapon. those govt officers serving in city of Hyderabad walked out without any enquiry. and awarded by beynazeer government. it is intriguing that not a single sindhi got killed that fateful evening.
The political hoopla over the domestic violence and civil killings provoked a massive police operation in the city with 2000 policemen surrounded the Pacco Qillo locality. The huge army of peacemakers could not curb the riots and had to be called back. There was only a trickle of internal migrations before the operation, but the operation triggered a mass exodus of population. The Muhajir migrated en masse from Qasimabad and the interior of Sindh into Latifabad. Similarly, the Sindhis people moved to Qasimabad from Hyderabad and Latifabad.
|Type:||4th largest city in Pakistan|
|Area:||319 km2 (123 sq mi)|
|Number of Union councils:||20|
|Local Language Name:||Urdu, Sindhi, Punjabi, Siraiki, Pashto|
|Coordinates :||25°22′45″N 68°22′06″E|
|Founded by:||Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah|
|Elevation:||13 m (43 ft)|
|Highest elevation:||13 m|
|Other Languages:||Punjabi ,Urdu, Sindhi|
|Government Type:||Municipal Corporation|
|Capital City Police Chief:||M Mahender Reddy|
|Deputy Mayor:||Syed Suhail Mehmood Mashadi|
|Total Area:||3,198 km2 (1,235 sq mi)|
|Time zone:||PKT (UTC+5)|
|Summer (DST):||PDT (UTC+6)|
|Dialing code:||+92 221|
|Vehicle registration:||Three letters beginning with H and random four numbers|
The glorious history of Hyderabad dates back to Neroon, the ruler of this region. The ancient name of this region was attributed to him as Neroon Kot, which means Neroon’s state or land. The majority of the population was Buddhists, and the majority of inhabitants in the settlement were fishermen.
Mohammad Bin Qasim, a 17-year old Arab military commander, attacked Neroon in 1711 and defeated Raja Dahir, the last Hindu ruler of Sindh. Islam was then soon started spreading in Sindh. Historians describe that the city was founded by Ghulam Shah Kulhora, the saintly ruler, in 1768 when he conquered this territory.
He named this city for the holy Prophet’s (PBUH) brave cousin & son-in-law, Ali (R.A), whose title was Hyder (Lion). The name Hyderabad is composed of two words; Hyder (Lion) and Abad (City), which means “Lion City”. Before the partition of the subcontinent, the city was regarded as the most beautiful and clean.
The city was used to be known as the “Paris of India”. Every morning, streets were washed with the clean drinking water from the River Indus. It remained the capital of Sindh till 1935. Even after partition, for almost 8 years from 1947 to 1955, it served as the capital of Sindh.
Hyderabad is located at are 25.367 °N latitudes and 68.367 °E longitudes on the geographic coordinate system. Its naturally beautiful landscape, topography, plains, mountainous areas, and the Indus River on the east bank make the region conducive for prosperity and progress.
Due to its geographical terrain, the climate is mostly mountainous and pleasant as compared to the surrounding cities. The region experiences all four seasons. Summer and winter last more than spring and autumn. The hottest time of the year when the temperature can rise as high as 48.5°C is from April to June.
Winters are usually mildly cold, with temperatures ranging from 10°C to 25°C. Usually, August is the wettest month with the highest rainfall (60.8mm), while January is the driest with the lowest rainfall (1.2mm).
Hyderabad has a hot desert climate (Köppen BWh), with warm conditions year-round. The city is famous for its winds which moderate the otherwise hot climate.As a result, Hyderabadi homes traditionally feature “wind-catching” towers that funnel breezes down into living quarters in order to alleviate heat.
The period from mid-April to late June (before the onset of the monsoon) is the hottest of the year, with highs peaking in May at 41.4 °C (106.5 °F). During this time, winds that blow usually bring along clouds of dust, and people prefer staying indoors in the daytime, while the breeze that flows at night is more pleasant. Winters are warm, with highs around 25 °C (77 °F), though lows can often drop below 10 °C (50 °F) at night. The highest temperature of 50 °C (122 °F) was recorded on 25 May 2018, while the lowest temperature of 1 °C (34 °F) was recorded on 8 February 2012.
In recent years, Hyderabad has seen great downpours. In February 2003, Hyderabad received 105 millimetres (4.13 in) of rain in 12 hours, leaving many dead.The years of 2006 and 2007 saw close contenders to this record rain with death tolls estimated in the hundreds. The highest single-day rain total of 250.7 millimetres (9.87 in) was recorded on 12 September 1962, while the wettest month was September 1962, at 286 millimetres (11.26 in).
|Climate data for Hyderabad, Pakistan|
|Record high °C (°F)||33.3
|Average high °C (°F)||25.0
|Average low °C (°F)||11.1
|Record low °C (°F)||3.3
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||1.2
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||272.8||257.1||288.3||288.0||313.1||279.0||235.6||251.1||285.0||306.9||279.0||272.8||3,328.7|
The city is thickly populated with 1,732,693 inhabitants, according to the 2017 census. The population density is 5,900/km2 (15,000/sq mi), which ranks it as the 8th largest Pakistan city.
Hyderabad city observes vibrant multicultural diversity. It is rich in heritage and history. Hindus and Christians are also settled here for centuries.
After the partition of the subcontinent, a large number of migrants arrived to settle here. Exquisite menus and recipes of traditional Sindhi cuisines like Sindhi Biryani and Palla fish are famous all over the country. The cakes of Bombay bakery are the best.
The city also ranks second in producing the intellectual capital of the province. There is a vast network of educational institutions providing primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Some prominent institutions of higher education are:
- Government College University Hyderabad provides quality education in a variety of disciplines. The university was established in 1917.
- Isra University, established in 1997, is very well know all over Pakistan for providing a variety of professional disciplines.
- Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences is a benchmark in providing quality medical education since its inception in 1881.
- Mehran University of Engineering and Technology (MUET) was established in 1976 to meet the region’s engineering requirements and beyond by producing creative minds.
- National University of Modern Languages, Hyderabad campus founded in 2007, offers a wide range of programs in linguistics, technical disciplines, medicines, and applied sciences.
- Sindh Agriculture University, founded in 1977, offers programs in Agricultural Engineering and Technology and applied sciences.
- SZABIST started in 1995; Hyderabad Campus offers a wide range of academic programs in computer sciences, engineering, and business administration to students throughout the province and beyond.
- The University of Sindh, as old as Pakistan, was established in 1947 to upgrade the intellectual capital of Sindh province and prepare its people to contribute their share in the growth of Pakistan. It is generally prominent for its research in Sindhology, philosophy, natural sciences, and literature.
Locals enjoy all types of sports but their favorites are:
- Malakhra (a traditional and ancient form of wrestling)
Hyderabad is an important commercial and trade center of Sind. Because of its proximity to Pakistan’s industrial hub, Karachi, Hyderabad is also flourishing as an economic and industrial zone. Industrial zones and industries of both cities are coming closer to each other.
Along both sides of the 136-km long national highway, M-9 connecting Karachi and Hyderabad, new industrial units are being established. The significant portion, 75%, of the province’s industry is located in the region between Karachi and Hyderabad. At present, the industrial sector contributes 25% of the total GDP of Pakistan. The industrial sector contributes 25% to the GDP of Pakistan, with a major concentration of industry in an arc stretching from Karachi to Hyderabad.75% of Sindh’s industry is located in the Karachi-Hyderabad region.The Sindh Industrial Trading Estate, home to 439 industrial units, was established on the outskirts of Hyderabad in 1950 which prospered with until the urban violence of the 1980s. Much of the city’s industrial base was weakened by ethnic violence in urban Sindh in the 1980s, although poor infrastructure and supply of electricity has also hampered growth.
Hyderabad is an important commercial center where industries includes: textiles, sugar, cement, manufacturing of mirror, soap, ice, paper, pottery, plastics, tanneries, hosiery mills and film. There are hide tanneries and sawmills. Handicraft industries, including silver and gold work, lacquer ware, ornamented silks, and embroidered leather saddles, are also well established.
Hyderabad produces almost all of the ornamental glass bangles in Pakistan, as well as layered glass inlay for jewelry.The glass industry employs an estimated 300,000-350,000 people in manufacturing units centered on the Churi Parah neighbourhood. The industry frequently uses recycled glass as material for its bangles.
Hyderabad is surrounded by fertile alluvial plains, and is a major commercial center for the agricultural produce of the surrounding area, including millet, rice, wheat, cotton, and fruit.
Hyderabad is well-known for its ornamental glass bangle-making industry, which is the largest in the world. Pakistan is one of the leading producers of high-quality leather. The leather industry in Hyderabad is also well-known for making export-quality leather goods and garments.
World-famous Handicrafts are also produced here. The cottage industry is another salient feature of this city. Textile companies and hosiery mills are abundant in the industrial zone. Other industrial units manufacture plastics, soap, paper, mirror, and pottery (ceramics).
Despite being the second-most populous city of Sindh, Hyderabad’s outskirts are highly fertile and conducive for cultivation. Agriculture is mainly dependent on canal irrigation. East bank of Indus River makes the soil capable of growing abundant crops or plants.
Hyderabad is the producer of quality crops like cotton, mangoes, millet, oilseeds, rice, sorghum (Jowar), sunflower, soybean, rape and mustard, sugarcane, and wheat.
Some prominent and worth seeing sites include:
- Askari Public Park
- Badshai Bungalow
- Dubbo Battle Ground
- Eidgah Masjid
- Ghanta Ghar (Market Tower)
- Hasrat Mohani District Central Library
- Institute of Sindhology Museum
- Kacha Qila (Maki Shah Qila)
- Miani Battle Ground
- Mian Ghulam Nabi Kalhoro Tomb
- Miran Ja Quba (Tombs of Mirs)
- Mukhi House
- Nursery Park
- Pakka Qila (Hyderabad Fort)
- Pucca Fort
- Qadam Gah Mola Ali
- Qasim Park
- Rani Bagh
- Resham Gali Bazar
- Shahi Bazar
- Shamshad Park
- Sindh Museum
- St. Philips Church
- Tomb of the Mian Ghulam Nabi Kalhoro
- Tomb of Shah Abdul Latif
Being a multicultural society, the following languages are spoken by various ethnic groups
The city can be reached by road through National (N-55) and Indus (N-5) Highways. These two highways and a motorway (M-9) connect the metropolis with the rest of the country.
The domestic airport in Hyderabad (HDD) is not operational now. Nearest airports are:
- Jinnah International Airport, Karachi (KHI), 131.72 km
- Shaheed Benazirabad Airport, Nawabashah (WNS), 94.84 km
- Sehwan Sharif Airport, Sehwan Sharif (SYM), 139.12 km
- Moenjodaro Airport, Moenjodaro (MJD), 220.01 km
The M-9 motorway is a six-lane motorway that connects Hyderabad to Karachi, 136 kilometers away. The city will also be connected to Sukkur by the M-6 motorway, being built as part of the wider China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. From Sukkur, motorways will continue onward to Multan, Lahore, Islamabad, Faisalabad, and Peshawar. It is connected to the oldest and longest N5 Route from Karachi (Sea) to Torkham 1819 km long.
Hyderabad Junction railway station serves as the city’s main rail station.
Hyderabad Junction railway station serves as the city’s main rail station. Passenger services are provided exclusively by Pakistan Railways. The city’s station is serviced by the Allama Iqbal Express to Sialkot, the Badin Express, and the Khyber Mail to Peshawar. Hyderabad has trains to Nawabshah, Badin, Tando Adam Junction, Karachi, and points in northern Pakistan.
Hyderabad Airport is situated at the east of the city Hyderabad near Gulistan e Sarmast which is an area of Latifabad but it is no longer served by commercial air traffic. The last services were suspended in 2013. Passengers must now instead rely entirely on Karachi’s Jinnah International Airport.
Hyderabad’s local architectural patterns reflect the region’s harsh climate and local customs. Walls of most traditional-style buildings were made of mud bricks, which helped keep the structure cool in summer and warm in winter.Hyderabad is famed for its heat-relieving winds,and so homes also featured wind-catchers that directed cool breezes into each homes’ living quarters.
Residential structures in Hyderabad’s Old City, and in Hirabad typically have a small inward facing courtyard that afforded privacy from the city’s streets. Walls facing the street are typically plain, though the home may display an elaborate entryway.Inner courtyards and doorways of more elaborate homes would be decorated with jharoka balconies, floral motifs, ornamented ceilings, and decorative arches.Most residential homes, however, were utilitarian in design.
Homes built during the British colonial period contain introduced architectural elements like balconies and decorative columns as part of an elaborate outward-facing façade.Such examples can be found in the Saddar neighborhood of Hyderabad. Large decorated windows were featured as part of Hyderabad’s colonial style in order to ventilate the building.Tall and multi-sectional windows with stained glass windows became a hallmark of Hyderabad’s colonial-era architecture.Homes of wealthy residents, especially among the city’s Bhaiband community, the presence of windows was a marker of status, and allowed wealthy Hindus to practice the custom of purdah.Balconies were sometimes affixed to the front of a building, and were typically made of wood or cast-iron.Such homes would also sometimes have painted facades.
Court of District & Sessions Judge Hyderabad was established in 1899 under the subordination of Judicial Commissioner of Sindh.
Hyderabad Postal Code and Area Code:
Postal Code: 71000
Area Code: 022
Specialities of Hyderabad:
- Hyderabad is the second largest city of Sindh Province. The city was conquered by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro upon the ruins of a Mauryan fishing village along the coast of the Indus River.
- Hyderabad city is rich in culture, traditions and history due to the fact that it lies alongside the River Indus. This city used to be renowned as the “Paris of India” due to the belief that the streets of the city were washed each morning with clean drinking water from the River Indus. Hyderabad now is a significant commercial and cultural center and serves as the passage between the rural and urban Sindh. A visitor coming to this city, can find one of the noteworthy sights, which include Pucco Kilo, Tombs of Talpurs, Mirs, and Kalhora Rulers.
- Hyderabad Gymkhana which is the main social club of the city. Beautifully preserved with the culture and tradition of Sindh, a museum has been established, which reflects the heritage and background of Indus Valley Civilization. Other prominent sights include River Indus, Bridge of Jamshoro, Gold Building, which is circular in shape. Rani Bagh, a park named after the Queen Victoria, Resham Gali and Shahi Bazar. The unusual thing about Hyderabad city is a road called as” Thandi Sarrak”, which means cold street, where air pressure remains very high.
- Laad bazaar is another speciality of Hyderabad known for its bangles market.
- It is famous for its culture and urban environment and colorful bazaars.
- Hyderabadi biryani is a famous dish of Pakistan.
- This city is called City of Pearls .
- Hyderabad(Pakistan) has a lot of Urdu-speaking people who are migrants from India and are also called the Muhajirs, meaning migrants
- According to 1998 census, Hyderabad district of Pakistan had second largest Hindu population after Thar Parkar district. Source:- Census of Pakistan 1998.
- The surrounding region is a vast fertile alluvial plain, excepting the hilly region of Hyderabad city, extending along the east bank of the Indus. Cultivation is dependent upon canal irrigation. Millet, jowar (sorghum), rice, wheat, cotton, oilseeds, and mangoes are the chief crops.
- Cottage handicrafts include leatherwork, glazed pottery and tiles, lacquerware and susi(striped cotton cloth) from Hala (north of Hyderabad city), khes (cotton blankets), and susis and anguchahs (cotton cloth) from Nasirpur (northeast of Hyderabad). Historic sites include Bhit Shah (4 miles [6 km] east of Hala), containing the tomb of Shāh ʿAbd-ul-Laṭīf (died 1753), the poet and Ṣūfī saint, and an ancient Buddhist stupa.
- Hyderabad is a city built on three hillocks cascading over each other.
- The City has a history of Sufism. In the 18th Century Syeds from Multan migrated and settled at Tando Jahania making it a sacred place for Muslims. These Syeds came here from Uch Sharif (Bahawalpur District) via Jahanian (Khanewal District 42 km from Multan).
- At the time of independence of Pakistan in 1947, the Muhajirs began to immigrate to Pakistan and many settled in the city of Hyderabad. These refugee Muslim lost everything in India and were settled in refugee camps. This hostility translated into communal tension in Hyderabad between Muslim refugees and local Hindus; After independence of Pakistan, Hindus abandoned Sindh in large numbers due to communal violence, or simply for economic prospects in India. Hindus had formed the backbone of Sindhi commerce and industry, and their departure was filled by educated Muslim migrants who quickly established themselves in the city.
Issues in Hyderabad City:
- Hyderabad city is still without a functioning master plan.
On the other hand the absence of a district management has worsened the performance of sewerage, drainage and solid waste management.
- The basic cause of that problem is a short term policy and ad hoc measures by the local government. Many times district management had prepared a master plan for the entire district (first time in 2007) but failed to see the light of day. Sewerage water is on main Makkah road from several months but local government is not taking any serious steps to repair the sewerage lane and water tanks.
- Issue of water supply and sanitation.
- Cleanliness issues and a lot of dirt everywhere.
- Solid waste is a great threat not only to the economy of any country but for the environment too. The public through various sources generate tons of solid waste regularly. In the era of globalization, one of the rising issues of developing and under developed countries is handling such huge masses of solid waste.
- As Hyderabad is the 2nd largest city of Sindh and 6th in Pakistan. Unfortunately, it does not poses proper solid waste management system right from collection up to its proper disposal. Most of those uncollected wastage poses a highrisk to the public through blockage of drains and formation of stagnant ponds which provide a breeding ground for flies and mosquitoes with a high risk of diseases.
Hyderabad is located in the Sindh province of Pakistan. The city was founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro upon the ruins of a Mauryan fishing village along the bank of the Indus known as Neroon Kot Formerly the capital of Sindh, it serves as the headquarters of the district of Hyderabad. Before the creation of Pakistan, it was known as the Paris of India, for its roads used to be washed with perfumed rose-water every day and sandalwood incense would linger the air.The political boundaries stage the city as a district and the region has seen major political turmoil. From the battles fought against the British occupation to the civilian unrest in the 1980s, the city has lost its glory of past and much of its cultural and architectural heritage lies in tattered ruins.Hyderabad is a hot and humid city in the south of the nation and has been a staging point for literary campaigns particularly oriented towards the Sindhi language and a birthplace of a few influential poets and Sufi dervishes. Rich with culture and tradition, the city is the largest bangle producer in the world and serves as a transit between the rural and the urban Sindh.
Stationed close to important architectural digs like the pre-Harappan Amri at 110 km, the region holds extreme importance to palæontologists world over. The city is also known for its medical and educational institutions.